- It should not impair with hearing.
- It should be light weight.
- It should not cause fatigue which causes crashes.
- It should not cause skin diseases.
- It should not increase the probability of neck injuries.
Kinds of helmets to be used :
It should have a thick padding of thermocole- at least 20 mm- which must extend to the sides of the head. A full face helmet is safer by all means.
Components of the helmet and their roles :
The Shell :
The shell of a helmet is an injection molded thermoplastic or a pressure molded thermoset that is reinforced with glass fibers or made of fiber glass.
- It absorbs energy in an impact:- The shell bends when the helmet is impacted and the underlying foam deforms. At moderate speeds the shell can take one-third of the impact energy.
- It distributes local forces from an impact:- Rigid objects like stone or a projecting beam can cause a skull fracture at low forces, the shell acts to distribute the force of such impact eliminating the risk of penetration.
- It allows sliding on road surfaces:- The shell being rigid and having a convex shape allows the helmet to slide along a road surface without there being an excessive force.
- It protects the face and temples:- Full-face helmet is beneficial in protecting the face and jaw. The chin bar of such helmets contain rigid foam to absorb energy for direct blows on the chin, prevent facial bone fractures and prevent the lower part of the forehead and temple being struck.
The foam liner :
This is a molding of polystyrene beads or polyurethane foam. It provides a stopping distance for the head. The foam can compress by 90% during an impact, although it recovers partially afterwards. But this helps increase the stopping distance thus reducing the peak deceleration of the head. It also protects as much as possible of the head.
Proper strapping system :
It is essential to wear a well-fitting helmet for the effective working of chinstrap system. To test if the helmet fits your head properly, tightly fasten the chinstrap and then pull helmet off forward by gripping the rear and then pulling. The strap must be threaded correctly so that the buckle locks the strap when it is pulled from the chin side. The strap must be pulled as tight as is bearable under the chin.
Wearing seat belt in a moving vehicle is believed to have saved millions of lives worldwide. Wearing of seat belt is mandatory and the most important precaution you can take to minimize your risk in an accident.
Everyone has an equal chance of being involved in a collision so do not take any chances on your safety and that of your fellow passengers.
When your car is involved in a collision, your car decelerates very quickly. Unless you or other vehicle passengers are held back by means of a safety belt you keep on moving in the same speed as your car was cruising before the impact.
At high speed, the front seat driver and passenger if not restrained by a safety belt would smash their heads against the windscreen, their bodies could badly hit against the steering wheel or dashboard and legs could get crushed in the under steering area. You may even be thrown out of the car with high impact.
Even rear seat occupants without safety belts could suffer grievous injuries as they hit the back of the
front seats and their occupants.
Not only is it important to wear a seat belt but also it must be worn correctly to help reduce chances of injury or death. The shoulder belt should be worn as closely fitted to the body as possible, over the
shoulder, never under the arm (as this may crush ribs and injure internal organs.
Secure your children
Having children in the front seat is a danger for the child. Sudden braking action in a moving car can throw the child forward hitting the front panel and windscreen glass resulting in serious injuries. It is recommended that children below the age of ten years must be securely fastened to the rear seat. Special children’s car seats with safety belts are recommended.
Children above the age of ten years may sit in the front seat but as a rule must always be fastened securely with the safety belts. Never allow children to sit with you in the driver’s seat or stand in the front seat area. Safety rear door locks are fitted in modern cars for children safety. These locks cannot be opened from inside. In any case securely lock your rear doors while children are seated.
Persons not wearing seats belts are liable to pay a penalty of Rs. 100/- for the 1st offence and Rs. 300/- for subsequent offences as per Section 177 of Motor Vehicle Act, 1988. So always wear seat belt while driving.
The speed of motor vehicles is universally agreed to be the most important factor contributing to crash, injuries and fatalities on roads. Speed influences both crash risk and crash consequence.
Excess speed refers to a vehicle exceeding the prescribed speed limit and inappropriate speed refers to a vehicle traveling at a speed unsuitable for the prevailing road and traffic conditions.
Modern cars fitted with more efficient engines have very high acceleration and can achieve high speeds within a very short time and distance. Crash risk increases as speed increases especially at road junctions and while overtaking – as road users underestimate this speed and overestimate the distance of an approaching vehicle
Further, in developing countries with a mixed traffic and high volume of vulnerable road users, increased speed has significantly contributed to an increasing trend of fatalities on Indian roads.
Empirical evidence from speed studies has shown that an increase of one KM per hour in mean traffic speed typically results in a 3% increase in the incidence of injury crashes or an increase of 4% to 5% for fatal crashes.
Speed has an exponentially detrimental effect on safety. As speed increase so do the number and severity of injuries. Studies show that the higher the impact speed the greater the likelihood of serious and fatal injuries.
- For car occupant, an increase in speed from 20 Kms to 100 Kms, the probability of fatal injuries increases from close to zero to almost 100%.
- The probability of serious injury for belted front seat occupants is three times as great at 48 km/hr and four times as great at 64 km/hr, compared with the risk at 32 km/hr.
- Pedestrians have a 90% chance of surviving car crashes at 30 km/hr or below, but less than a 50% chance of surviving impacts at 45 km/hr or above.
- The probability of pedestrians being killed rises by a factor of 8 as the impact speed of the car increases from 30 km/hr to 50 km/hr.
Older pedestrians are even more physically vulnerable as speed increases.
SPEEDING CAN BE A CAUSE OF SEVERE CRASH
- Drivers get lesser time to avoid mishap and the stopping distance lengthens which increases both the likelihood of crashing and the severity of the crashes.
- The vehicle structure is rendered incapable of withstanding the force of the crash which results in serious injury to the occupants.
- The protection capability of restraint systems such as airbags and safety belts and roadside hardware and safety features such as barriers and bridge rails become nullified.
- Vehicles become prone to increased tire tread wear, rise in tire weakening operation temperature, longer stopping distances and increased brake wear.
- At faster speeds the driver’s ability to accurately see and judge the distances get compromised
Vehicle Engineering and design play a major role in safety of both the occupant and those outside the vehicle in the event of a crash. Vehicle engineering for improve safety can be achieved by modifying a vehicle to help the driver, avoid a crash or in the event of a crash, protect both those inside and outside the car against the injury.
Research indicates that vehicle crash protection is a most effective strategy for reducing death and serious injuries in road crashes. According to a WHO report, citing the effectiveness of casualty reduction measures in the United Kingdom between 1980 and 1996 found that the greatest contribution to reducing casualties was crash protection improvements to vehicles. These accounted for around 15% of the reduction compared with 11% for drink – drive measures and 6.5% for road safety engineering measures.
During the 1990′s significant steps have been taken to improve designs of vehicles in developing countries and especially in India. However, more efforts are required on this front for improving design factor for protection of those outside the vehicle i.e. the vulnerable road users as the dominant category of road casualties upto 2020 will continue to be the pedestrians, cyclists and motor cyclists.
The majority of fatally injured pedestrians are hit by the fronts of cars and heavy vehicles. Creating safer fronts, if thus, the key means of improving pedestrian safety. Preliminary investigations have suggested that reduction in injuries could be achieved if the geometry and design of vans, pickup trucks, other trucks and buses were changed.
- Municipal Corporation of Delhi.
- New Delhi Municipal Committee.
- Public Works Department, GNCT of Delhi.
- Delhi Development Authority.
- Delhi Cantonment Board.
- National Highways Authority of India.
Any authority intending to carry out construction, maintenance or repair works on any road or street in the NCT of Delhi is required to obtain permission from Deputy Commissioner of Police, Traffic to undertake such works as permitted during the specified timings and period. While carrying out such repair and maintenance works, the civic road agencies are required to follow the following guidelines :
- All safety measures should be adopted for smooth and safe flow of traffic.
- All necessary road signages with fluorescent tape (mandatory, warning and informatory) should be fixed for traffic guidance along the route and at the site.
- Other necessary road safety measures as per the requirement should also be adopted at the site from time to time.
- No malba/material etc. should be kept on the road while carrying out civic works.
- The civic works should not hamper the normal flow of traffic at the site.
- The work should be completed within the allotted time period.
- Alternative passage provided should be in proper shape and no inconvenience should be caused to the road users.